Wednesday, June 10, 2009

Historical, Cultural & Philosophical approaches to Massage

Historical, Cultural and Philosophical approaches to Massage

Today we will look at the Historical, Cultural and Philosophical approaches to massage. I will discuss different influences on the development of massage, Cultural massage like Miri Miri and Romi Romi, scandals of the 1800, the development of professional massage in NZ and how philosophical approaches of body, body-mind, and body-mind-spirit relate historically and culturally.

It’s hard to know exactly when massage was developed, but many say it is a natural instinct we all have. “It is a natural response to rub our aches and pains, whether or not we are familiar with the medical knowledge behind these actions” (Salvo, 2007). There is archaeological evidence that supports the idea that healing touch was used in prehistoric times. This was shown in extensive pictorial records. The Chinese have records that date back to 3000 BC that reveal the practice of massage, and records from the second century BC discuss massage as a treatment for illness.

Historical Developments
One of the most influential people, whose work it still present today is Hippocrates of Cos -460-375 BC. Hippocrates became known as The Farther of Medicine. He based his medical practice on observations and the study of the human body. He believed that the body must be treated as a whole, not just a series of parts. He held the belief that illness had not only a physical but a rational explanation and was not caused by possession of evil spirits or superstitions as believed by his elders. He was quoted as saying “The physician must be experienced in many things but assuredly in rubbing ... For rubbing can bind a joint that is too loose and loosen a joint that is too rigid” (McQuillian D, 2009). Hippocrates also noted that massage in a proximal direction was preferable to massage distally e.g. the way the blood flows, and that after the reduction of a dislocated shoulder, the friction should be done with soft, gentle hands. He believed that we must have a humble relationship with all our patients, and take care as avoid causing additional harm, which is a strong part of our roles today as massage therapists.

During the transition period of Greek and Roman dominance massage gained such acceptance that Julius Caesar -C. 100-44 BC, used it to help his epilepsy. Later followed Galen of Pergamon -C. AD 130-200, he was a follower of Hippocratic medicine and contributed to much of the early writings on massage. Galen is considered the most important contributor to medicine following Hippocrates and many of his influences are still present today. Galen is still respected for his contributions to anatomy, physiology and pharmacology and for his incorporation of philosophy, logic and experiment with medicine. Galen advanced Hippocrates descriptions of massage and came up with the pre-event and post-event theory. Galen was the first to demonstrate the functions of nerves. His demonstrating of severing nerves at different locations along the spinal cord producing varying levels of paralysis, led to the identification of many spinal nerves and the discovery of seven out of ten cranial nerves.

In the early nineteenth century the era of modern massage began. An important writer at this time was Pehr Henrik Ling -1776-1839, a Swedish physiologist and gymnastics instructor. Ling developed the Swedish Movement Cure where gymnastics was applied to the treatment of disease and injury. He believed that “Swedish gymnastics was a therapeutic system by which we try – by means of influencing movement – to overcome discomfort that has arisen through abnormal conditions” (Salvo, 2007). Ling’s system consisted of Active, Passive and Duplicated movements and Massage. Ling blended his knowledge of physiology and massage to produce Swedish massage. Swedish massage and Swedish Gymnastics where noted to improve range of movement, circulation, relieve muscle tension and promote relaxation. This system eventually led to the development of Physiotherapy.

Other notable individual whom shaped the history of massage include Johann Mezger -1817-1893, a Physician who was able to get the medical community to accept Massage as medical treatment for disease and illness, which meant massage became an integrated part of physical therapy. Mezger is also credited with the use of French names for terminology still used today for example effleurage, petrissage and tapotement. John Harvey Kellogg -1852-1943, opened the Battle of Creek Sanitarium -health spa- in the 1890’s. He also wrote articles and books on massage which helped popularize massage in the United States and gave birth to the Spa industry as we know it today. Emil Vodder -1896-1986, along with his wife while working with patients with chronic colds found that most of them had swollen lymph nodes. Even though it was taboo to tamper with the lymphatic system – due to the unknown nature of the system – the Vodder’s began more intense studies and research and in 1936 they released their series of hand movements to the world in Paris. They spent the rest of their lives demonstrating and teaching these moves. The hand movements that twist and stretch the skin to move the lymph is still taught today in its unaltered form.

Dr. James Cyriax was a British physician said to be the Father of Orthopedic Medicine. Cyriax developed a system of assessing to diagnose lesions of the musculoskeletal system and the soft tissues of the body using passive and resisted movements to test different inert and contractile structures.

Dr Janet Travell - 1901-1997, was said to be the leading pioneer in diagnosis and treatment of myofasical pain using trigger point therapy. Travell treated President Kennedy in 1955 for myofasical pain and other ailments that were said to be threatening to end his political career. This lead to Travell becoming the White House Physician. Trigger Point Therapy has become one of the most effective modalities used by therapists for relief of pain.

Cultural Massage
Not only was their medical influence in the shaping of massage but also culture influence as well. Maori traditional massage has been passed down through whanau or family for year and is still a part of their culture today. Although there is not a lot of traditional Maori massage documented we do know that Maori health acknowledges the link between the mind, body, spirit, human connection with family and the physical world in a seamless way. They incorporate physical massage, manipulation, energetic work, herbal medicine & counselling. Their treatments known as Miri Miri focus on the emotional/spiritual root of the problem. They use Koo Miri or the Process of Talking to find the “core” emotional bindings that dis-able, dis-empower and keep dis-cord rife (McQuillian, D, 2009). They believe that by using the “3rd Eye” they are able to identify, change and heal issues. Taa Miri is used to find trapped trauma by reading and listening to the body. Romi Romi is the use of elbows, hands, knees, feet, sticks or wood, stones and seawater to do deep tissue body work (McQuillian, D, 2009). A lot of the traditions that the Maori use is similar to those of other Polynesian cultures throughout the world and it has been said that Maori massage techniques are similar to that of Lomi Lomi or Hawaiian Massage. The traditional cultural massages are similar to Eastern styles with their focus on the inner flow of energy and how this affects the spirit, but have used more modern western traditions of deeper work on the muscles and tissues.

Eastern V's Western Massage

Eastern massage dates back centries and was used by the Chinese, Japanese and Indians. They focused mainly on the the flow of energy or "chi" and believed that any sickness was caused from the energy flow being disrupted. The Thai believe that you need to apply pressure on the "life power lines" of the body to create an even flow through the body. Yoga, Shiatsu and accupressure are just some of the many styles are all based on energy flow. Most of the eastern forms of massage require no oil and can be performed while fully clothed and on the floor. It is about guiding the mind, body and spirit into harmony and balance. These forms of massage are still widely practiced today, with some of the styles being adapted to include western trends. Western traditions seem to base themselves on the physical body using pressure, tension, and motion to manipulate the tissues and muscles. The most common western sytle is Swedish Massage which uses soft and deep tissue treatments. In recent times the western styles have started to adopt a more mind, body, spirit approach to massage as we become more aware of what affects our bodies in terms of enviornment, diet, stress levels to name a few and how what we think and do and how that can affect how we feel.

Scandal in the 1800's
In the 1800’s massage took a huge downturn. Doctors were inundated with clients who wanted the popular treatment of massage that they had to start training nurses and non-medically trained women to perform it. These women became the first Massage Therapists. Unfortunately some unethical people decided to take advantage of the non-medically trained side of the industry and lured poor women to schools they set up, offering them free training in exchange for work in their “Massage Parlours”. These parlours then became a front for houses of prostitution. This led to the problematic and persistent association of massage and prostitution. Massage Parlours still exist today and even now people still joke about Massage Therapists as being associated with these parlours. In 1943 the American Association of Masseurs & Masseuses and the Society of trained Masseuses were formed. They made sure that training was practiced in schools that were regularly checked, the teachers had to be qualified and there were written and clinical examinations.

Development of Professional Massage in New Zeland
In 1985 Bill Wareham called all massage therapists in Auckland to a meeting and from this the Massage Institute of New Zealand (MINZI) was born. Their main focus included Education of Therapists, The standard of massage teachers and conferences for skill development. In 1989 Jim Sanford thought that the Therapeutic Massage Practitioners needed a professional association similar to that of the physiotherapy board. As a result the New Zealand Association of Therapeutic Massage Practice (NZATMP) was formed. Their main focus was on Educational standards, Promotion of massages Professional image within the industry, dissemination of information and increasing public recognition. In 2007 TMA & MINZI merged to become Massage New Zealand (MNZ). Even though it was a somewhat historical event MNZ has struggled due to interfractional politics as old members of the two associations have disagreed over some issues. The merger has definite benefits to help us move towards greater government recognition as a united front is always best.

Philosophical Approaches to Massage
The Body approach to massage is that where the treatment focuses on the body and what effects massage has within the body. Most all forms of modern medicine have this focus. “Mind is not a factor, but is a result of the brain mechanism” (McQuillian, D, 2009). Treatments include drugs, surgery, medicines and so on. The Body-Mind approach looks how we think and how it affects our body. Treatments take this into consideration and include things like counselling, relaxation therapies like Reiki and relaxation massage, hypnosis & Yoga just to name a few. The health and wellness of a person are based on the whole person being in balance. The Body-Mind-Spirit approach often incorporates a spiritual dimension into people’s health. It is where your actions, feelings and intentions can affect other people. Your actions act within a spiritual context for example Karma, and may have physical consequences. Distance healing, prayer, traditional healing, energetic healing are all aspects of this approach.

All in all there have been so many influences on Massage as we know it today. Some fell by the wayside and some a still very much a part of the industry today. From Kellogg opening the first ‘Spa” resort to the way Lymph is drained and moved in our systems. We give thanks to Mezger for getting massage the credit it deserved in the medical realm and to all our cultural ancestors for the knowledge and training they passed down through the ages and that is still being passed down. We know that Massage will always have its up’s and down’s as all things do, but let’s hope it is nothing as scandaless as that of prostitution!! I am excited about what the future holds for Massage Therapist such as me as the industry is become more and more popular again. I believe that more than ever Massage Therapy is become the treatment of choice over surgery and drugs. We just have to make sure we support the industry we are training in and help promote the positive influence we can have on other people’s lives.


Class Notes
Personal Experiences

McQuillian, D. (2009) Historical Development of Massage, Dunedin, New Zealand: Otago Polythecnic

McQuillian, D. (2009) Fundamentals of Massage, Dunedin, New Zealand: Otago Polytechnic

Hippocrates - The Father of Medicine, retreived 8 June 2009 from,

Galen of Pergamum, Retreived 8 June 2009 from

Muru. A,(2008) Retrieved 8 June 2009 from

History of Massage in New Zealand, Retreived 8 June 2009 from

History of Massage, East v's West, Rereived 10 June 2009 from

Salvo, S.(2007), Massage Therapy. Principles and Practice (3rd ed). Missouri, Saunders

Traditional Thai Massage, Retreived 22 June 2009, from

The Trigger Point Therapy Workbook, Travell.J, Retreived 22 June 2009 from,

James Cyrix MD, Retreived 22 June 2009 from,

Monday, June 1, 2009

Sustainability of a Massage Practice

Sustainability of a Massage Practice

“Sustainability, in general terms, is the ability to maintain balance of a certain process or state in any system.” (Wikipedia, 2009)

In today’s economic environment we have several factors we need to take into account to have a viable and sustainable massage Practice. The economic, environmental & social sustainabilty are some of the key fundaments to making a business work. Will my business survive, is my business impacting on the environment and what sort of social impact will it have? All key questions to be considered before starting a practice of my own.

With the economy in a recession at the present moment, one would be hesitant to start up their own business without first doing a business plan to work out the overall running costs from day to day. “Small businesses often face a variety of problems related to their size. A frequent cause of bankruptcy is under capitalization. This is often a result of poor planning rather than economic conditions” (Wikipedia, 2009). We have to make sure that we are pricing our services according to the market. To do this we need to work out what others are charging, what costs are involved in running the business for example; power, rates, insurance and so on. What costs are involved for each activity we do within the business for example; Massage oils, washing, uniforms and other hidden costs. If we don’t make enough money to cover our costs, or our through put is not large enough due to poor location or want, this will impact on other parts of our business. If we plan well we will have enough clients to cover costs and start making a profit at which time, we can then start contributing to the economy of where we are by supporting local business and using them to buy the products and services we need to grow and expand our practice.

The Environment has become more and more a focus of our everyday lives and the choices we make. Many people now will by Eco friendly products or support environmentally sustainable business to help do their bit to reduce the carbon footprint we leave. Massage practices needs to be aware of what impact we have on the environment. We need to make sure we are looking at all the possible ways of looking after our environment, but at the same time not putting unrealistic expectations on our business. We need to look at the most efficient ways to heat our premise, the lighting we use, the amount of washing we do and how we dry that washing.
There are several Eco friendly options on the market when it comes to lighting, detergents, linen and heating. If we plan our practice well, all these can be implement over time. By using energy efficient light-bulbs and the best power rated way to heat our rooms, and how we dry our linen, we can reduce our power consumption. Using cold water and biodegradable detergents for the majority of our washes we reduce the effects on our storm water. Some of these can be quite pricey to start with, but in the long term they will benefit our business and our environmental sustainability.

“Social sustainability is related to the more basic needs of happiness, safety, freedom, dignity and affection. These conditions cannot be met without a healthy and sustainable natural environment and economy.” (Ministry of the Environment, 2009)
We have to be aware of the diverse range of cultures and beliefs that exist today. We need to have a good rapport with all our clients and business we deal with, as well as those that work around us. To make our practice more socially sustainable we need to have a wide variety of networks we can use and refer to. If we do this, we build upon our own business by providing other avenues to our clients. This can create a flow on effect within the network, which can have benefits for all those involved. The social networks and rapports we build can help other areas of our business sustainability.

I have already started thinking about what things i would do to make my practice sustainable. Things include door to door advertising. This not only reduces the cost of advertising in newspapers and the likes, it will also keep me fit and aware of my community. I already used Eco friendly washing powder to do my laundry and hang my linen outside when i can. I only heat my massage room on days when it is being used and use a sheet and towel to drape my clients as to not increase my power consumption. I have started on my network of business people including a Physio and Midwife who will be able to refer clients to me in the future. While we are still training it is hard to implement all the things i would like to keep my business sustainable as we are not currently charging for our services. Once this happens i will be able to work more on making my massage practice a sustainable one.

To make our business work we need to do a lot of planning and market research to devise our best methods of becoming a sustainable Massage Practice. The economy, environment and our social networks will always change. We have to factor this into our business to make sure we stay in business. Our sustainability will always be in our hands, and we need to be aware of the ebb and flow of the modern world. I don’t think we have all the best answers right now, but with time and planning I am sure we can all contribute to the sustainability of our Massage Practices.


Sustainability (2009) retrieved on 31 May 2009
Small Business (2009) retrieved on 31 May 2009

Social Sustainability in Government (2009) retrieved on 31 May 2009

Personal Reflection

Tuesday, May 19, 2009

The Ethics of Professional Practice

The Ethical considerations that are relevant to professional practice as a massage therapist include

Client-Centred Care
As Hippocrates said “To help, or at least do no harm” (David McQuillian, Elluminate, 2009) As a therapist we need to make sure the clients best interests are foremost at all times. We need to make sure we respect who they are, treat them with compassion and involve them in all aspects of the treatment so that they have a clear understanding of what is happening, make sure they know that their goals are being meet and that we both have a clear understanding about boundaries and how to communicate to each other about all aspects of treatment.

Informed consent
As a massage therapist we must always obtain informed consent from our clients. This starts at the first contact we have with the client, where they need to be aware of costs, services that are provided, our intake procedure and any referral services (if necessary). During the intake procedure they need to be informed about clinical procedures, our record taking, likely after effects of massage, therapist qualifications, benefits & contraindications of massage, are they comfortable with areas on the body to massaged e.g. feet, glutes, head etc. Throughout the treatment the use of the pressure is a verbal form of consent that makes sure they are in a comfortable condition.

Scope of Practice
As therapists we need to inform our clients of our scope of practice. We need to inform them of our training, experience in the industry, qualifications and competency. If the client asks for something that is outside our scope of practice, we should refer them onto the appropriate qualified professional than can help them. It is not ethical to work outside of our Scope of Practice as we could end up doing more harm than good.

Clients need to know that the relationship that forms between us will be kept in strictest confidence. They need to feel confident that access to their records is only by rights of other healthcare professionals or via written consent from them. Clients also need to feel secure in the knowledge that any discussions between client and therapist are confidential (with some exceptions). As a health care professional we must not recognise a client in public unless they greet us first. Some clients might not wish others to know they are using our services.

It is important to outline boundaries right from the start. Boundaries include personal space, emotional distance, terms of service and our personal autonomy in a given situation. We need to use these boundaries to clarify our roles, responsibilities, expectations, limitations, and create and preserve safety in relationships. Boundaries are negotiated and maintained through good communication

Power Differentials
As a therapist we have to be very aware of the “power” we have over our clients. This is not only when advising treatment, but while treatment is being received. Our clients believe in us because we are trained, and thus they look at us as teachers. They can take everything we say as gospel and this is where we have to be careful not to be too suggestive. Also when the client is on the table, we have to be careful not to stand over the client as they are vulnerable, and during the treatment, the client maybe so relaxed that anything we suggest will be agreed with as they may not be fully aware of what is being asked. We must maintain a professional persona at all times and never misguide our clients.

As a therapist we have to be aware that we either have a therapeutic or personal relationship with someone, but not both as it typically does not work. It is very hard to maintain boundaries and keep professional if you are involved with someone as their therapist and partner. If a personal relationship does arise, you need to close off the therapeutic relationship first as to not cross any boundaries.

Transference and Counter-transference
These work both ways, either the clients form an attachment for the therapist or vice versa. Several signs include becoming dependant on one another, invitations to personal events, personal gifts etc. One of the signs of Transference of a client is their unrealistic expectations of the therapist and their dependence on them. On the other hand when the therapist forms the counter-transference they have a need to fix people. We have to make sure we set clear boundaries for both the client and therapist, and if these signs start becoming more frequent, we should seek regular supervision when the client is present. At its worst we should consider referring the client to someone else

Class Notes
David McQuillian, Elluminate, 2009

Thursday, May 14, 2009

Time Management

My Time Management by Rachel Jackson

Time management is always one of those scary things that people seem to think they are really good at, but in hindsight they are not. I was one of these people. I thought I had reasonably good planning, structure, balance and time management in my day to day life. When you study, work and dance, it's not as easy as 1,2,3!!

While working as a Receptionist for the Mayor of Hamilton City, I managed to implement strong time management skills. I was able to have reports out on time, organise functions that ran smoothly and keep my environment clean and tidy and free of chaos. I thought these were all the skills I needed, I was wrong!! All skills you have can be improved on as there are always better ways to do things.

After starting my studies I realise that all the areas I was good at needed lots of work to make everything fit and flow. I had a strong base in time management and structure, but I have found this had to be fine tuned if I was to fit everything in. We all have our own lives outside of school, weather we have families, hobbies, work or sports interests. I have found that I need to structure my days as I work on the weekends, I dance 3 or 4 nights a week, I have at least 4 subjects through school and several hobbies I like to enjoy. With the mix of all of these, my balance has gone out the window.

I now plan and structure each day with each week planed from 9am in the morning to 9pm at night. I am lucky in many respect to have so many hours in the day, as i don't have to be home for children or partners. I give myself an hour in the mornings to have breakfast, make my bed etc and then it's into the day. I allow myself an hour on each subject, time for a massage client, and then time for assesments, study and writing up notes. I also plan in hours for dancing, socializing and work.

With the structure and planning I have found I have more hours in the day to complete study, leaving time for hobbies and dancing. My time management is being helped along by means of the planning and structure and with my alarm clock signalling each hour. I now have more time for myself as well as my friends and my assessments are all submitted earlier than required as it allow more time on upcoming assessments, tests or learning. The balance I needed is starting to emerge.

I know if I continue to plan, structure and manage my time like I have started to do, I will be the best student I can possibly be, which ultimately will result in me being the best person and Therapist I can be.

Wednesday, April 1, 2009

The Effect of Massage Strokes

Here is my blog post on the Effects of Massage Strokes

The Effects of Massage on the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

Firstly we need to understand a bit about the ANS and what it does. From the Encyclopedia and Dictonary of Medicine, Nursing and Allied Health the word "Autonomic (aw"to-nom'ik) means - not subject to voluntary control. A.nervous system, the branch of the nervous system that works without concious control.

The ANS is responsible for controlling the functions of your internal organs and the glands that secrete hormones at a subconscious level. The ANS is split into two divisions that possess complementary responses. They are the Parasympathetic and Sympathetic divisions.

The Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS) dominates at reats and supports body functions that conserve and restore body energy. The Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) requires body energy to respond as all the reactions of the SNS occur quickly. This is also know as the flight/flight response.

Now that we know some of the basics of what the ANS does we realise that massage can have effects on both divisions during a treatment session.

If the pressure from the therapist is to hard and uncomfortable or they are generallly rough, the SNS will produce it's flight/fight response making the client can become tense, ridgid, and voice a response or complain. Again if the touch is to light or in an area that is painful or the client doesn't like being touched the same response occurs.

If the therapist applies a comfortable pressure, make the client comfortable and relaxed, the client will become calm and the PNS will start slowing the heart rate, release endorphins and relax the whole body, mind and soul. This can help the client to contemplate additional options or solution to their everyday lives due to their relaxed state.

The Effects of Massage Strokes

Touching/Holding - Touch is important as it provides reassurance and comfort to a client. "Touch is more important than making physical contact with another person: it's a mindbody experience" (McCormack 1991). It is used to calm and relax clients as well as providing both physical and emotional comfort, used at the start and end of massage as a start and finish point.

Effleurage - The gliding stroke. This stroke is rhythmic and slow to facilitate the movement of fluid in the body eg blood and lymph. It can be used to assess the surface and underlying tissues of the body and as a bridging stroke between different areas. Effleurage helps aid the venous (heart) and lymphatic return, removal of chemical irritants and the interchange of tissue fluid. It also helps to increase and decrease muscle tone (deep & light) and can help restore mobility at tissue interfaces.

Petrissage - Has several different variations eg Kneading, Wringing, Rolling etc. Generally used to stimulate the nervous system and used after effleurage as it milks the tissues of metabolic wastes and draws in new blood and oxygen. Effleurage is usaually repeated afterwards to help flush wastes. Petrissage can help restore mobility between tissue interfaces and improve the appreance and mobility of subcutaneous tissue. It also helps to increase the strength and extensibility of connective tissue

Compression - Is a rhythmic pumping on muscles used to broaden the muscle and usually inducing the muscle to relax. It can be used to stimulate and area and increase local circulation. You can use Broad or Specific. Broad generally uses your palm or fist to asses tension level and can be used to aid circulation, muscle resting tension and lymph drainage. It can also be used in pre-event sport massage to stimulate muscle tone and arousal thus benifiting the athlete. Specific compression are non-gliding generally using thumbs, knuckles or elbows. Specific is more commonly used in trigger-point or myofascial release techniques.

Tapotment - Like Petrissage has several variations including Hacking, Pounding and Cupping to name a few. A very rhythmical firm-striking manipulation it is used to stimulate local circulation and muscle tone and to provoke muscle and tendon reflexes. Tapotment is used at the end of relaxation massage to wake the muscles up if the client has to go back to work or drive home. It should not be used immediatley after exercise because it can activate muscle spindles, causing cramp.

Vibration - Aslo has several differnt variations including Fine, Joisting/Course, Rocking. It is generally a shaking, quivering or rocking motion used to enhance relaxation and increase circulation. Vibration can also stimulate the peristalsis (muscular contractions) in the large intestines. It can reduce trigger and tender points and is activly used to wake up nerves.

Other Effects of Massage
Massage has lots of effects on different parts of the body, not only externally but internally as well. Evidence of this includes ;

  • Increase of blood flow from strokes helping the circulation back to the heart. The increase also helps to deliver oxygen and nutrients and rid the muscles of waste products like lactic acid

  • Blood Pressure is reduced due to the dilation or stretching of the blood vessels

  • Lymph Circulation is helped through muscle contraction. As the lymphatic systems has no pump it relies on the actions of the skeletal muscles and breathing contractions to move around the body

  • Muscle tension is relieved by making them more relaxed, reducing spasms by separating the fibres

  • The pain cycle is interrupted and stress is reduced through the activation of the relaxation response and the release of endorphins, enkephalins and other pain-reducing neurochemicals

  • Sleep Patterns , Concentration and Mood are changed through the process of massage. Low serotonum and dopamine levels have been linked to sleep/wake cycles, depression a lack of focus and poor attention spans to name a few. With the release of endorhins and the increase of serotonin and dopamine levels and the internal ebb and flow being slowed, people tend to sleep deeper and have improved mental health status and generally feel better in themselves. Massage is especially good for sleep if given late in the day

  • Decreases adhesion formation on connective tissue to help facilitate normal pain-free movement of affected joints and muscle in the body. It also helps with the increased retention of nutrients in the bones like Sulfur and Phosphorus

  • Digestion is improved through the activation of the relaxation response and the increase of peristaltic activity which moves bowel contents and intestinal gases

  • Staisfies peoples emotional needs by catering to their attention, providing them with a caring and nurturing environment and a relationship that accepts them for whom they are, thus creating a bond through touch and communication. Massage can assist emotional expression with relaxation. Massage also increases oxytocin a neurohormone that enhances feelings of being connect and being taken care of


Text books
Class Notes

Spineuniverse retirieved 2 April 2009 from

The Physiological Mystery of Massage retrieved 2 April 2009 from

Foundations of Massage - Charles & Vicki Tuchtan and David Stelfox - 2004
Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing and Allied Health - Miller and Keane - 1983
Massage Therapy - Salvo - 2009
Touch - Tiffinay Field - 2003

Tuesday, March 3, 2009


Hi all

As one of your class reps we have to keep you informed of what OPSA is up to.

I thought by sending out this blog it will make sure everyone knows what happening.

Firstly nominations are now open for members of the 2009 executive committee. Nominations close at 3pm on mon 17 march.

The AGM will be held on the 18 march at 12 in G106 to elect the committee. Everyone is welcome to attend the AGM and finger food will be provided.

If you are interested in either of the above mentioned please talk to me or Suz and we can give you more details


Sunday, March 1, 2009

The Story of Stuff

After watching this presentation i feel it is something that should be played to people at High School.

We need to take a stand and return our plant to it's former glory.

We need to make our children understand that is fine not to have the latest toys, or computers, or clothes etc. That it's cool to recycle.

Our biggest problem is that to many people think "what diffence can one person make". This is what needs to change. Everybody, everywhere can make a difference.

If we all do our little bit the world will become a much healther place to live not only for us, but our younger generations too.

Think about it - imagine a world without green grass and clean air